E.4 Remote Subprogram Calls
remote subprogram call
is a subprogram call that invokes the execution
of a subprogram in another (active) partition. The partition that originates
the remote subprogram call is the calling partition
, and the partition
that executes the corresponding subprogram body is the called partition
Some remote procedure calls are allowed to return prior to the completion
of subprogram execution. These are called asynchronous remote procedure
There are three different
ways of performing a remote subprogram call:
As a direct call on a (remote) subprogram explicitly
declared in a remote call interface;
As an indirect call through a value of a remote
As a dispatching call with a controlling operand
designated by a value of a remote access-to-class-wide type.
The first way of calling corresponds to a static
binding between the calling and the called partition. The latter two
ways correspond to a dynamic binding between the calling and the
Remote types library units (see E.2.2
and remote call interface library units (see E.2.3
define the remote subprograms or remote access types used for remote
In a dispatching call with two or more controlling
operands, if one controlling operand is designated by a value of a remote
access-to-class-wide type, then all shall be.
A nonblocking program unit shall not contain, other
than within nested units with Nonblocking specified as statically False,
a dispatching call with a controlling operand designated by a value of
a remote access-to-class-wide type.
the execution of a remote subprogram call, subprogram parameters (and
later the results, if any) are passed using a stream-oriented representation
) which is suitable for transmission
between partitions. This action is called marshalling
is the reverse action of reconstructing the parameters or results from
the stream-oriented representation. Marshalling is performed initially
as part of the remote subprogram call in the calling partition; unmarshalling
is done in the called partition. After the remote subprogram completes,
marshalling is performed in the called partition, and finally unmarshalling
is done in the calling partition.
is the sequence of code that replaces the subprogram body of
a remotely called subprogram in the calling partition. A receiving
is the sequence of code (the “wrapper”) that receives
a remote subprogram call on the called partition and invokes the appropriate
Remote subprogram calls are executed
at most once, that is, if the subprogram call returns normally, then
the called subprogram's body was executed exactly once.
The task executing a remote subprogram call blocks
until the subprogram in the called partition returns, unless the call
is asynchronous. For an asynchronous remote procedure call, the calling
task can become ready before the procedure in the called partition returns.
If a construct containing a remote
call is aborted, the remote subprogram call is cancelled
the execution of the remote subprogram is immediately aborted as a result
of the cancellation is implementation defined.
If a remote subprogram call is received by a called
partition before the partition has completed its elaboration, the call
is kept pending until the called partition completes its elaboration
(unless the call is cancelled by the calling partition prior to that).
If an exception is propagated by a remotely called
subprogram, and the call is not an asynchronous call, the corresponding
exception is reraised at the point of the remote subprogram call. For
an asynchronous call, if the remote procedure call returns prior to the
completion of the remotely called subprogram, any exception is lost.
The exception Communication_Error (see E.5
is raised if a remote call cannot be completed due to difficulties in
communicating with the called partition.
of remote subprogram calls are potentially blocking operations (see 9.5
In a remote
subprogram call with a formal parameter of a class-wide type, a check
is made that the tag of the actual parameter identifies a tagged type
declared in a declared-pure or shared passive library unit, or in the
visible part of a remote types or remote call interface library unit.
Program_Error is raised if this check fails. In a
remote function call which returns a class-wide type, the same check
is made on the function result.
In a dispatching
call with two or more controlling operands that are designated by values
of a remote access-to-class-wide type, a check is made (in addition to
the normal Tag_Check — see 11.5
all the remote access-to-class-wide values originated from Access attribute_reference
that were evaluated by tasks of the same active partition.
is raised if this check fails.
The implementation of remote subprogram calls shall
conform to the PCS interface as defined by the specification of the language-defined
package System.RPC (see E.5
). The calling stub
shall use the Do_RPC procedure unless the remote procedure call is asynchronous
in which case Do_APC shall be used. On the receiving side, the corresponding
receiving stub shall be invoked by the RPC-receiver.
With respect to shared variables in shared passive
library units, the execution of the corresponding subprogram body of
a synchronous remote procedure call is considered to be part of the execution
of the calling task. The execution of the corresponding subprogram body
of an asynchronous remote procedure call proceeds in parallel with the
calling task and does not signal the next action of the calling task
NOTE 1 A given active partition can
both make and receive remote subprogram calls. Thus, an active partition
can act as both a client and a server.
NOTE 2 If a given exception is propagated
by a remote subprogram call, but the exception does not exist in the
calling partition, the exception can be handled by an others choice
or be propagated to and handled by a third partition.
Ada 2005 and 2012 Editions sponsored in part by Ada-Europe